Yadda giwar ruwa ke cin kwari miliyan 40 a rana

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Giwar ruwaHakkin mallakar hoto
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Daga Ella Davies

11 ga Afirilun 2017

Tsananin son cin abinci da matsananciyar yunwa da galabaita. Daukacinmu akwai ranakun da mukan yi fama da yunwa, amma ko yunwarka ta kai ga bukatar cin ton hudu na halittar ruwa?

Batu na gaskiya, shudin hamshakin kifi (the blue whale) giwar ruwa ita ce babbar dabbar da ta fi kowace girma a duniya, inda ta sha gaban komai a zakuwar son cin abinci.

A kullum wannan kasurgumar dabba tana lakume kananan kwari miliyan 40, wadanda ake yi wa lakabi da kananan kifaye

Sai dai akwai sauran dabbobi da ke cin abinci ba na wasa ba, ta yadda wasunsu za su ba ka mamaki.

Hakkin mallakar hoto
(Credit: Denis-Huot/naturepl.com).

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Giwar Afirka (Loxodonta africana) abincin rana

Tamkar hamshakin shudin kifi, wannan katafariyar dabbar doron kasa tana cin abinci daidai da dundumemen jikinta.

A cewar kwararrun masana kan giwar Afirka, Norman Owen-Smith na Jami’ar Witwatersrand da ke Johannesburg a Afirka ta Kudu, inda namijinta ke lakume kaso guda cikin 100 na nauyinta a kan busasshen tundurkin kasa a ko wacce rana, yayin da ta-macen da ke shayarwa ke cin kashi 1.5 cikin 100 don su ci gaba da rayuwa.

Panda na cin abincin da nauyinsa ya kai kilo 12.5 na kwangwala ko wacce rana.

Namijin yana da nauyin ton 6, don haka abin da yake ci nauyinsa ya kai kilo 60 na busasshen abinci ba tare da an hada da yawan ruwan da ta kwankwada ba, al’amarin da ka iya nunkawa da rubi hudu.

Hamshakan dabbobi masu shayarwa kan shafe tsawon rana wajen kai-kawon cin korayen tsirran da ke ba su kuzarin rayuwa. Sukan iya shafe sa’o’i 18 suna cin abinci a rana, gwargwadon abin da ya samu.

Haka kuma hamshakiyar yanyawar Sin (Panda) kan shafe sa’o’i 14 tana gwagwiyar kwangwala.

Masu bincike sun yi nuni da cewa wanan abincin bai cika kosar da dabbobin ba, wadanda tsarrin sarrafa abincinsu na iya sarrafa ko wanne irin nau’in abinci, wanda da sarrafa dimbin tsirrai ba.

Wannan ke nuni da dalilin da ya sanya yanyawar Panda ke cin dimbin abincin da nauyinsa ya kai kilo 12.5 na kwangwala a ko wacce rana don samun isasshen abincin da suke bukata, kuma shi ne hujja da ke nuni da kimar kashinsu.

Daukacin maciyan tsirrai kan shafe tsawon lokaci suna bibiyar dimbin gayayyaki da itatuwa don samun isasshen abincin da zai ba su kuzari, yayin maciyan nama kan mayar da hankali kan kayan makwalashe (abincin da ake dafawa cikin gaugawa).

Hakkin mallakar hoto
(Credit: Visuals Unlimited/naturepl.com)

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Jemage mai launin ruwan kasa (Myotis lucifugus)

Brock Fenton na Jami’ar Western da ke Canada ya ce adadin an “zuzuta shi,” sakamakon rudanin da aka samu a tsakanin nau’ukan binciken biyu mabambanta da aka gudanar kan nau’ukan jemage a shekarun 1950.

Nau’ukan jemagen Japan kan shirya shirin cin abinci na gaba kafin ma ya lakume wanda ke gabansa.

Fenton ya ce daya daga binciken da aka gudanar ya yi nazari ne kana bin da ke cikin jemage mai launuka uku bayan ya gama cin abinci, yayin da dayan kuwa ya bi kadin nau’ukan jemage kananan masu launin kasa-kasa a dakin binciken kan yadda yake kama sauraye da kudajen da ke zarya kan ‘ya’yan itace.

Babu daya daga cikin binciken da ya bayar da adadin na gaskiya kan yawan kwarin da karamin jemage mai launin kasa-kasa ke lakumewa a daji.

Kuma karamin jemage mai launin kasa-kasa na cin dimbinci ba wai sauraye kadai ba: sun ma fi son abubuwan masu girma, kamar tsutsotsi, a duk lokacin da suka samu damar kama su.

Wani bincike da aka gudanar kan jemagu a kasar Canada ya yi nuni da cewa sauraye wani yanki ne kadan daga abincinsu.

Don haka ta yiwu fadadawa aka yi cewa suna iya lakume sauro a ko wacce dakika 3.6.

Sai dai akwai hujjar da ke nuni da cewa ire-iren jemagu sukan kara kaimin farautar abincinsu doin samun gwargwadon abin da ya wadata da suke ci.

A shekarar 2016 bincike ya nuna cewa Jemagun Japan kan shirya cin abinci na gaba kafin ma su lakume wand ake gabansu.

Sabanin yadda ake ganin tashinsu, jemagun kan tsara shawaginsu bisa la’akari da irin abin da za su iya sura a hanya.

Hakkin mallakar hoto
(Credit: Artur Tabor/naturepl.com)

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Karamar jabar dawa- A pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus)

Akwai sauran kananan kasa-kasan dabbobi masu shayarwa wadanda ke cin abinci babu kakkautawa: nau’ukan jabar daji (the shrews).

A kalla ko wacce tsiryar Amurka hummingbird na lakume sukarin da ya kai rabin nauyinta a ko wacce rana.

Jabar dawan da aka sani dole ta ci abin da ya yi daidai nauyinta da kashi 80 zuwa 90 cikin 100 a tsakanin sa’o’i 2 zuwa 3.

Karamar jabar dawa, wadda ta kai rabin girman ‘yar uwarta tana cin kashi 125 cikin 100 na abincin da ya kai nauyin jikinta a kowace rana.

Irin wadannan dabbobi masu shayarwa suna da saurin sarrafa abinci, al’amarin da ke nuni da cewa nan take zai narke ya ba su kuzari cikin hanzari.

Don haka sai sun ci abinci akai-akai dibge da abinci mai kara lafiya na protein da dabbobi masu kasha ke ci ko yunwa ta halaka su.

Duk wata tattaunawa kan sarrafa abinci to za ta bi kadin tsiryar Amuyrka (hummingbirds).

Hakkin mallakar hoto
(Credit: Mike Potts/naturepl.com)

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Kudan tsiryar Amurka (A bee hummingbird) (Mellisuga helenae), tsaikon wucin gadin tsakanin lokutan cin abinci

Wadannan halittu masu tashin ban mamaki sun fi shan zakin sukari don samun kuzarin tashi. Sukan bubbuka fuka-fuklinsu sau 50 a kowace dakika, irin wadannan tsuntsaye sun fi saurin sarrafa abinci a jerin dabbobi masu kashi.

Ta yiwu ka ji labarin cewa akalla tysiryar Amurka na lakume zakin sukari da ya kai kimar rabin nauyin jikinta a kowace rana, inda take cin abinci bayar kowane minti 15 a furannin kallo.

Akan sarrafa dimbin sinadarin kuzari da ke tare don bunkasa karamin dan tayi zuwa tsutsar siliki.

“Yawan zakin furen kallo da tsiryar Amurka ke lakumewa na iya bambanta,” a cewar Adam Hadley, ja-gaban masu binciken tsiryar Amurka (hummingbird) a Jami’ar Jihar Oregon.

“Musamman tunda suna da mabambanta girman jiki, wanda ya kama daga giram 2.5 na kudan tsiryar Amurka (bee hummingbird) zuwa babbar tsiryar (giant hummingbird).”

Yayin da manya ke kwankwadar dimbin zakin furanni, suna sarayar da makamashin kuzarinsu ne a hankali fiye da kananan tsuntsaye. Wannan na nuni da cewa, in an kwatanta, kananan halittu sun yi fama da matsananciyar yunwa.

Hadley ya ce tsuntsaye na adana makamashi har zuwa lokacin da suka bukaci amfani da shi. “Abin sha’awar shi ne yadda suke adana abin da ya kai kashi 17 cikin 100 na nauyin jikinsu na maiko, ta yadda za ta kasance kowace tsiryar amurka za ta yi amfani da 30lb a rana guda.”

Sauran nau’ukan halittu na nuni da cin abincin ban mamaki a wani yanayin lokaci na rayuwarsu. Alal misali, akwai bukatar dimbin makamashin kuzari don bunkasar dan-tayi zuwa tsutsar siliki.

Hakkin mallakar hoto
(Credit: Barry Mansell/naturepl.com)

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Kwarin tsutsar siliki (Antheraea polyphemus)

Kwaron tsutsar siliki (The Polyphemus moth) an yi masa lakabi ne da sunan gwarazan Girkawa da Homer ya bijiro da su a labaran ban mamaki, saboda a kowane fufffike yana da alamar kwayar ido.

Sai dai daukacin halitta mai cin mutum da tsutsa mai lakume tsirrai abu guda ne wajen zakuwar son cin abinci da yawa.

Don mu kamo tsutsa, sai mun rika cin abincin da nauyinsa ya kai laba 50 zuwa 200 na latas a kowace rana.

Kamar yadda Kundin shahararrun al’amuran duniya Guinness ya tattara cewa, kwaron tsutsa irin “caterpillar” na cin abincin da nauyinsa ya rubanya na jikinta sau 86,000 a kwanaki 56.

Amma Andrei Soirakov jagoran masu tattara bayanai a gidan kayan tarihin albarkatun kasa na Florida cewa ya yi, akwai tababa kan adadi.

Wanan kawai tamkar ka auna abin da mutum ke ci ne tsawon rayuwar yarintarsa, sannan ka kwatanta shi da nauyinsu a lokacin da suke kamar jariri sabuwar haihuwa.

Sourakov ya ce aikin da aka gudanar kwanan nan a Jami’ar Florida ya gano cewa kwaron luna, wanda yake kwatankwacin girin irin wadannan halittu, kawai suna cin abin da ya kai rabi ko biyu bisa uku na nauyin jikinsu a ko wacce rana.

“Har yanzu dai lamarin da kayatarwa,” inji Sourakov. “doin su yi daidai da kwaron tsitsar ‘caterpillar’ to sai mun ci laba 50 zuwa 200 na latas kowace rana.”

Karara yake, a cewar Eric Carle yunwar kwaron tsutsar caterpillar ta shahara ba kai makurar da ake nuni da ita ba.

Dabba ta karshe da muke bin kadin tsananin yunwarta a duniya ba lallai su kasance mashahuran abubuwan da ake nuni da su a littattafan labarai na yara.

Ko da yake yanayin cina bincinsu na musamman an tattaro shi ne don ceton rayuwar mutane, inda aka siffanta su da dodanni masu ban tsoro.

Hakkin mallakar hoto
(Credit: Willem Kolvoort/naturepl.com)

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Tsutsa mai shan jini (Hirudo medicinalis)

Ana amfani da tsutsotsi masu zukar jini don warkar da gyambo karnoni da dama. Sai dai mafi yawan nau’ukan tsutsotsin 700 suna lakume halittu marasa kasha, wato tamkar yadda tsutsar tsibirin Borneo mai ban tsoro ke farauta.

Jagoran nazarin tsutsa mai shan jini ya taba ganin “hamshakiyar” tsutsar da aka tsareta, inda take samun abinci ba tare da sun cutar da kowa ba.

“Manyan tsitsotsin da na taba gani samfuran manyuan tsutsotsin dajin Amazon ne da ake yi wa lakabi da ‘Haementeria ghilianii’ da bajimin tsutsar Asiya mai lakabin Hirudinaria manillensis,” in ji Siddall.

Ya kara da cewa, “Wadannan daidaikun tsutsotsin babu tantama su suka fi zukar jini.”

Sai dai a daji, damar samu ke da tasirin kan son cin abinci.Tsutsotsin kungurmin daji sun yi kankanta da farauta, don haka suke jiran abin da za su iya lakumewa ya kawo kansa.

Saboda tsawon jiran da suke yi, ba abin mamaki ba ne su yi ta hadama su cika cikinsu da zarar dama ta samu sai su ci har girmansu ya rubanya nauyin jikinsu sau bakwai bayan sun kwankwadi jini.

Wannan shi ne isasshen abin da kowane zai lakume.

Shiga rukunin mutum fiye da miliyan shida da ke sha’awar shirin BBC kan doron kasa, ta hanyar latsa maballin kauna a shafinmu na Facebook ko a bniyo mu a shafinmu na Twitter da Instagram.

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